Marcia found in a used book a n Apirl 1915 issue of National Geographic with an pictorial article of Irish costume., April 1915, pp. 404-405.

Boys' Flannel Dresses in Ireland -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Figure 1.--A rural Irish boy in the early 20th century still wearing a dress at 12 years of age. Note the characteristic wide stripe near he hem of the dress. Irish boys were commonly outfitted in dresses until they were 12 or 13 years old. This practice was most common in rural areas, but it was not unknown in towns. Folk lore warned mothers to hide their boys from the "faries," so they were dressed as girls, usually in long flannel dresses. I have little information on these flannel dresses. Much of the information described below is derived solely from an examination of the available photographic images. Please let me know if you have any additional information or note anything in the photographs. Region The custom by the 19th Century was most prevalent in Connaught, one of Ireland's four provinces. Connaught is the western projection of Ireland south of Ulster. Another source suggests the custom was particularly common in the western county of Galway, located in the southern part of Connaught Province. The western areas of Ireland tended to be the most backward and traditional. Fokelore Folk tales vary. Some claim it is the devil stealing boys, others the faries, or leprechauns as they are also known. One folk tale asks why Ireland is so green? The answer is that it is because the rain fairies love Ireland. They have made it the greenest spot on earth. They do this by sprinkling it for ever with the drops of their fairy rain. The fairies, unfortunately, seem to get up to a good bit of mischief as well. The faires are apparently divided into tribes just as Ireland is divided into districts, counties, and provinces. There are many different tribes and these tribes are all quite different from the others. There are fairies that dress like flowers and those than can change themnselves into different shapes. There are evil fairies and solitary fairies. Many country people believed that you always had to refere to the as the "Good people," because they are easily offended. But if you truly believe in them and leave a little milk on the window sill, they can bring luck and happiness. Some country people were particularly concerned with the leprechaun, or fairy shoemaker. The leprechaun sits under a toadstool making tiny shoes. As W.B. Years wrote: Can you not catch the tiny clamor, Busy click of an elfin hammer, Voice of the Leprechaun ringing shrill As he busily plies his trade? The name "leprechaun" in fact comes from two Gaelic words meaning "one shoe". The reason he has this name is that he is always busy working one one of his shoes. The leprechaun is regarded by the country people as mysterious and mischievious. And one of his great pranks is stealing "wee" boys away. He steals them so they can help him with his work. He apparently does not bother to steal girls because they are not as strong and useful. As a result mothers so feared the leprechaun that they dressesd their boys in flannel petticoats to trick the sly creatures. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Figure 2.--All the boys at this Irish school photographed in 1915 appear to be wearing flannel dresses. The Custom Irish boys dressed in dresses until the age of 12. For years it was actually thought that there were variously evil "farries," "daemons" or "spirits" wandering about that would steal away small boys that were still to small to protect themselves. The actual details varried from village to village and from story teller to teller. The Irish of course love to tell stories and do so with great flair. So the precise detials of the story varied greatly. What ever the details, many believed the old fables. So to guard against the boys be stolen away, boys usually up to 12 years of age were dressed "daily" in dresses in an effort to fool the daemon into thinking they were not really little boys. Many followed this practice almost religiously. We have noted quite a few references to this folk tradition. How seriously it was taken by peopleI do not know. There were several areas in the countryside where people reportedly acted on this belief for years. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Figure 3.--Some boys wore boyish jackets with their flannel dresses. This was most common of course in the winter, but the accompanying clothes also had to do with the family's affluence. This group also photographed in 1915 all wear flannel dresses. I'm not sure about the other children, but as these boys look to be the older ones, it is likely that the other boys also wore flannel dresses. Note boys some times wore a sweater along with their jackets. Chronology I am not sure when this practice developed. It may have been a tradition dating back many centurines to the Celtic people of Ireland and Scotland. A HBC reader suspects that those cotton dresses on Irish boys were descendents of the linnen "leine". The leine was common to both Scotland and Ireland and is mentioned as the principal garment for Celtic men in the middle ages. In that period, it was not a boys' garment, but worn by both men and boys. What ever tge origin, the fashion of boys wearing long dresses appears to have been firmly established in the 19th Century. Througout the Century Irish boys in many areas, especially the more isolated areas, where Celtic was still common, wore these flannel dresses. The custom appears to have become less common in the late 19th Century, but was still prevalent in some areas into the 20th Century as there are reports of the practice, including the photographs shown here, until after World War I (1914-18). We had thought that the custom essntially disappeared after World War I. We note one report, however, suggesting that the custom persisted unto the 1950s. An observer reports, "I remember when on holiday in the west of Ireland in the late 1950s seeing a very young boy dressed in a skirt. I was told that it was a disguise, because the fairies stole young boys, but not girls." [Robin Haldane, The Times (London) November 29, 2002.] Social Class The custom was most common in rural areas of Ireland, especially the traditional, poorer Galeic speaking areas. This can be seen as the boys involved are often barefoot, which in the 19th Century was widely seen in England and Ireland as an indicator of poverty. The custom does not always see to have been just one for poor children. Some images appear to show more affluent boys wearing stocking and shoes as well as well fitted jackets and caps with their dresses. The shoes in particularly suggest as least a minimal level of affluence. Another reason I believe that this custom was not limited just to poor families is that I can recall reading a biography, although the citation allues me now, of an Anglo-Irish boy growing up in an Irish town wear he boys commonly wore dresses. He was teased when his family moved to the city, I think Dublin. One Irish reader writes, "Even by the turn of the 20th century, there was still great povery in Ireland. Not alone could many people not afford clothes, but many families could not afford adequate food. Mothers made clothes from cloth from potatoe and grain sacks. Perhaps one reason that dresses and skirts were worn by boys is that they were easier to cut and stich than pants." Source One HBC contributor reports that the dresses worn by Irish boys were the old cut down dresses of their mothers or older sisters. This may have well been the case in many instances. This is especially true because the fashion was concentrated in some of the poorest areas of England. We can not yet, however, confirm this. Given the fact that in some areas the fashion of boys wearing long dresses was so common, HBC tends to believe that this was not the onkly source of these dresses. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Figure 4.--Many of the flannel dresses that these boys are wearing all are of similar design, but different colors. One frequest stylistic element is a horizontal stripe near the hem of the dress. Dress Styles The flannel dresses worn by Irish boys seem remarkable similar in style, with only minor stylistic differences. I am not sure if this is due to the fact that the available images are all early 20th Cenntury photograhs. There may have been more variation in the 19th Century. All of the available photographic images of Irish boys wearing flannel dresses show basic "A"-line frocks. Many have skirts which drop straight from wear the arms join the sleeves. Other have modest bodices with a gathering at the waist. All have long sleeves. All are solid flannel material. There is virtually no decoration or stylistic embelishments, with a few exceptions: Collar: Some of the dresses seem to have very modest collars with darker or lighter materail. Stripe: Many dresses have a wide horizontal strip near the hem of the dress. One astute HBC contributors suggests that these stripes may not be stylistic elements, but rather the result of the hemline being let down and/or more material being added to it as the boy grew. He doubts that it was actually any sort of "fashion" since these seem to be practical, everyday types of clothes for them. I'm not sure this is correct, because you would assume the bodice would also have to be enlarged. However, many of these boys came from very poor families, so this observation could well explain the stripe. Color One report I noted indicates that many of the flannel dresses were red. Red may have been a common color, but available black and white photography suggests that mothers employed quite a variety of colors were employed for the dresses. Sometimes the boys just wore the dresses. Other times they wore them with a boyish looking jacket, one they might wear with kneepants when slightly older. Other Clothes Shirts Some boys appear to be wearing shirts with their flannel dresses. This of course is unlikely as they could not be tucked in. Shirts would have had to have been made especially for the dresses. Sweaters The light-colored shirt-like garments are probably sweaters. Boys commonly wore sweaters with the dresses in the cooler months. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Figure 5.--Some boys in this photograph wear jackets or vests with their flannel dresses. Again note the wide horizontal stripe near the dress hem. Jackets Many boys commonly wore jackets and vests with their flannel dresses. This was particularly common in winter and for school. These look to be the same jackets that they will be wearing when they graduate to kneepants. Hats Most of the available images show the boys bare headed, but some images showed that they wore a wide variety of caps with their dresss. Convention Available images suggest that these flannel dresses are what the boys wore throught the day for all activities. Phtographs show the boys wearing the dresses both at home and at school. It seems to have been a widely followed custom in many communities. School photographs show groups of boys all wearing the dresses, not just a few perhaps with traditionally oriented mothers. Boys' Attitudes I have little information concerning what the boys thought of wearing dresses to protect thermseleves fro the faries. The one account I read about an Anglo-Irish boy indicates that he did not object and thought little about it until his familt moved to a city and the other boys started teasing him. Another report suggests that the boys, epecilally the older ones, generally disliked wearing the flannel dresses. Most apparentlt would have preferred wearing trousers like their fathers an older brothers, but like their mothers were concerned about the faries. Sources National Geographic, April 1915, pp. 404-405.

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